Profiling your slow queries using pt-query-digest and some love from Percona Server

This guide will get you up and running with how to identify the bottleneck queries using the excellent tool pt-query-digest. You will learn how to use and analyze the output returned by pt-query-digest. You will also learn some differences between slow query logging in various MySQL versions. Later on in the post I will also show you how to make use of the extra diagnostic data available with Percona Server.

Slides of my talk on B+Tree Indexes and InnoDB

The slides of my talk on B+Tree Indexes and InnoDB are now available for download. This slide was presented during Percona Live London 2011. You can download the slides from here. There are many other interesting and informative talks that were presented during Percona Live London 2011, and I think you should definitely check them out, if you haven't. They are available here.

When EXPLAIN estimates can go wrong!

This is the title of my first blog post on MySQL Performance Blog. It deals with a customer case where the customer was facing a peculiar problem where the rows column in the EXPLAIN output of the query was totally off. The actual number of rows was 18 times more than the number of rows reported by MySQL in the output of EXPLAIN. Now this can be a real pain as MySQL uses “the number of rows” estimation to pick

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Understanding B+tree Indexes and how they Impact Performance

Indexes are a very important part of databases and are used frequently to speed up access to particular data item or items. So before working with indexes, it is important to understand how indexes work behind the scene and what is the data structure that is used to store these indexes, because unless you understand the inner working of an index, you will never be able to fully harness its power.

On Covering Indexes and Their Impact on Performance

The purpose of this post is to describe what covering indexes are and how they can be used to improve the performance of queries. People mostly use indexes to filter or sort the results but not much thought is given to actually reduce the disk reads by using proper indexes. So I will show you how to reduce disk reads and hence improve the performance of queries by utilizing indexes properly.

MySQL: Using Views as Performance Improvement Tools

The most basic and most oft-repeated task that a DBA has to accomplish is to look at slow logs and filter out queries that are suboptimal, that consume lots of unnecessary resources and that hence slow down the database server. This post looks at why and how VIEWs can help against such suboptimal operations.

Understanding MySQL binary and non-binary string data types

Having reviewed different table structures designed by different people, I have come to the conclusion that binary and non-binary string data types are used without consideration of the consequences of choosing either one. The confusion stems from the fact that both non-binary and binary string data appear to store characters because they can be saved as quoted string.

A few notes on locking in MySQL

This is another article in a series of articles titled "A few notes ..." in which I will be posting some important information about locking concepts, different types of locks and what locks table engines support. Just like the previous article, the purpose of this article is to highlight important aspects that you should have in the back of your mind when developing applications.

A few notes on InnoDB PRIMARY KEY

InnoDB uses an index-organized data storage technique, wherein the primary key acts as the clustered index and this clustered index holds the data. Its for this reason that understanding the basics of InnoDB primary key is very important, and hence the need for these notes.

Understanding InnoDB transaction isolation levels

Isolation is an important part of ACID properties that guarantee that transactions are processed in a reliable manner. But there are four different levels of isolation available and you have to understand each one of them to be able to select the correct one for your needs. This post intends on explaining the four levels together with their effects on locking and performance.